On Mahayana Patriarchs
Mahayana Buddhism has a special class of teachers called Patriarchs. They have the following characteristics:
Engaging in Battles
The ancients have the following rules regarding when to not to go into battle:
The people must feel that their leaders engage in thorough planning, carefully evaluating all options and valuing the people’s lives for them to make sacrifices for the good of the country.
To Value Righteousness Over Money
Mr. Phạm Trọng Yêm was prime minister of the Song Dynasty and yet he was poor his entire life. He valued righteousness over money and loved to do charity work. He saved enough money from his salary to buy a plot of land to plant crops and used the proceeds to do charity work. Whoever needed help with funerals and marriages, could come to him for help.
His son was Thuần Nhân and was a spitting image of him. He was an official at a small province, saved enough to buy five barrels of grain to bring home to his father. On the way home, he met with his father’s old friend who fell on hard times and had three deaths in the family. So, he gave him the five barrels of grain to help. Furthermore, the father’s friend also had two daughters who could not get married because they lacked dowries. So, he gave them his boat as well.
So, the son came home empty handed. His father inquired about the trip.
The son said, “I met with your old friend who was in financial difficulties and also had three funerals in the household. So, I gave him the five barrels of grains which I fear still wasn’t enough.”
“Why didn’t you give them your boat?” asked his father.
“I did,” was the reply.
His father exclaimed, “Attaboy!”
The thunder cannot be reduced in sound to harmonize with the sound of the bells. The light from the sun and moon cannot be bent to illuminate the small alley ways. The big river cannot narrow its width so as to make it easier for man to cross. The tall mountain cannot lower its peak in order to please the amateur mountain climber.
Similarly, the big charriot cannot shrink its wheel axle so that it can enter the narrow passageway. The superior cannot lower himself to make himself accepted by the lowly.
Guarding Against Illness
Bian Que was a great physician during the Chun Qiu era of China. He came to visit the Qi齊 king. After looking at the king for a while, he told the king that he had a skin condition that should be treated quickly before it became worse.
The Qi king replied that he was disease free. So, BQ walked out. The Qi king laughed and said, “What a slick snake oil salesman! He was trying to cure a healthy person to make a name for himself.”
Ten days later, BQ came again and then said, “Your Highness has a liver problem. You’d better treat quickly.”
The King’s face turned very dissatisfied. So, BQ walked out.
Ten days later BQ came to see the Qi king. He took one look at the king and immediately walked out. The Qi king sent people to ask BQ about his sudden exit. HC said: “Skin conditioned can be cured by acupuncture, liver illness can be cured with herbs but once the illness gets to the bone marrow, it’s too late for treatment!”
Five days later, the Qi king did become ill and no doctor could save him. He died as a result.
The End of a Country
What are the signs that people in the past used to determine if a country was on the decline?
The country stored enough food and fortified the ramparts, neglecting to care for its citizens and felt confident that it was strong enough to fend off the enemies. Its king was not keen on working hard to maintain the independence of the country. The crown prince was weak and cowardly. The rich elite were extravagant in their expenditures and indulged in lust. The officials were arrogant, greedy and cruel. The government was heavily polarized, and no one would assume responsibility.
If that country is in between two stronger countries, it would not last ten years.
Kong Minh’s Advice to His Son
The Chinese man, who was the personification of intelligence, cleverness and loyalty, once wrote a letter of advice to his son.
“...The superior man must be still and pure in order to cultivate. He must know moderation to nurture virtue. If one is not calm and dispassionate then one cannot be clear-headed. Deep knowledge requires quietude, lack of rashness and no temper.
To study one must be still and pure. Talented people still need to study or else their talents are narrow in scope. Lacking stillness and purity then one cannot really study. Laziness and arrogance will preclude thorough knowledge. Viciousness and brute force prevent reforming one’s character.
Each year the body ages and becomes weaker and sick. To sigh and lament of missed opportunities would only be in vain...”
You Already Know This
Innocent and neither good nor evil, such is our nature when we are born into the world.
Liking good and disgusted with evil is because that’s what (most of us) we gravitate toward
Rejecting good and identifying with evil happens when we are influenced by bad habits, thus putting us on the road toward steady decline.
Turning from evil to good can happen through cultivation, thus helping improve ourselves steadily.
Regress or improvement, you yourself know it: you should never try to fool yourself. Apply yourself!
You Can Count on This Person
This world has two kinds of difficulties: to be born to the heavens is hard but asking someone for help is even harder.
This world also has two kinds of bitterness: huang lian is bitter (the Chinese know that this plant is very very bitter) but being poor and destitute is far more bitter.
Mankind has two kinds of thinness: newly frozen water surface is thin (you get in big trouble if you step on it) but reliance on others is even thinner.
Mankind also has two kinds of dangers: the mountains and rivers are dangerous, but people’s hearts are even more dangerous.
The Chinese philosopher Mo Zi 墨子, saw silk being dyed and had the following realization:
It turns green when a green dye is used, and yellow when a yellow dye is used. Silk takes on the color of the dye that is used. Dye it five times, it will change color five times: therefore, one must use the dye carefully.
On the Noble Position of an Official
A wise official of old said to a newly appointed official, “An official works for the citizens and it’s not the case that the citizens must serve the official. People pay taxes in order to pay for the official’s salary in order for the official to administer justice for the populace. Unfortunately, it is so sad to see that nowadays, the official collects his salary but is tardy at administering public work and in some cases even steals from the citizens.
Don’t Be So Inflexible!
The ancients said the following:
Heavens cannot make flowers bloom out of season. Therefore, sages observe timeliness.
Mother Earth cannot change the seasons. Therefore, sages do not violate traditions.
The People Come First
According to Mencius, for the country to be strong, it needs three components:
1. The people.
2. The land.
3. The king.
In that order.
Although the people lack authority and power, they have the power of the mass. Therefore, they
are ranked first.
How to Govern The Country
Zi Chan 子產 was a well known scholar. He became a great politician and general in the Zheng鄭 country in China. He was a very benevolent leader.
Zi Chan fell very ill. So he called Zi Tai Shu 子太叔 and said, “After my death, you’ll have to govern the country. You should know that virtuous people must use benevolence and harmony to inspire respect from the people while ordinary people must use awe and strictness to govern the country.
Loyalty Versus Individualism
In the Qi 齊 country, there was a man who was an official in the king’s court. He was bestowed land, riches and titles and was very well off. When the Qi king was in danger, he refused to sacrifice his life to save the king.
One day, he met an old acquaintance who saw him in astonishment, “I thought you were dead!”
Only Seeing Oneself
The ancient said:
“Man often commits the myriad of offenses because of this illness called, “Only Seeing Oneself”. Because of this sickness, he schemes night and day in order to become richer, climbs up the social ladder, strengthens one’s safety net, indulges in pleasures, assures one’s survival, lengthens one’s life while not caring whether or not others are poor and destitute, experiences danger and difficulty, and fails miserably or loses his life. In other words, he doesn’t care for other living beings and has no respect for the rules of morality and propriety. Therefore, he may have a human body, but he is no better than an animal.
Great Men’s 4 Considerations
Zi Chan 子產was a well-known scholar. He became a great politician and general in the Zheng
鄭 country in China. He taught that great men have four superior traits:
1. Having self-respect toward oneself.
Loyalty Outweighs Personal Love
The Qi (齊) army started invading the Lu (魯) country. As they crossed the border, there was a woman carrying a child in one hand and leading another child with the other. When she saw the soldiers, she let the child she was carrying down and carried the other child and ran. The child left behind ran after her, crying for her but she wouldn’t even look back.
Righteousness Brings Love
A rich wife went home to visit her family. Her female servant came along, carrying the lady’s jewelry box. The servant misplaced the jewelry box. It was later that she realized it and therefore frantically went looking for it.
She saw a beggar sitting by the roadside holding the jewelry box. She immediately came over and claimed it. The beggar immediately returned the jewelry box to her.
Visiting A Statesman
A stateman official came into office. His populace organized a great feast to celebrate.
Toward the end of the celebration, an old man wearing a coarse white robe also came to see the statesman. He immediately put on his best clothes to go greet the visitor and said, “Our king does not realize that I have no talent and yet is too trusting. That’s why he appointed me to this post. I’m very grateful for the warm welcome. Now that you came for a visit, you surely must have something in mind.”
The Big Picture
Zhuang Zi 莊子was the reknowned Classical Taoist disciple of Lao Zi. His wife passed away. His close friend, scholar and stateman Hui Zi 惠子, came to visit and found him singing while beating the rhythm on a water container.
Hui Zi said, “You married her and have children with her. Now that she passed on, you don’t need to grieve for her. That’s understandable. But you’re singing?”
The Emperor had just selected a new royal concubine whose beauty was out of this world. Therefore, he adored her and doted on her.
The empress knew so, and thus she also showed adoration for the new concubine and showered her with favors and gifts so that the new royal concubine was lacking in nothing.
The Crazy Fool
There was a crazy man. He would roll in the mud, step on thorns and bristles. He was always content with himself and always argued to prove that he was right.
He later met with a competent doctor who was able to cure him. As a result, he gradually became better and became completely well.
Three Happy Things
The ancients felt that the superior man possesses three happy things that are even better than being a king.
One’s parents are still alive and the siblings are safe and healthy: that is one happy thing.
One cannot be reproached by the heavens and feels no shame toward anyone: that is another happy thing.
Roãn Thuần was taking the Imperial Examination. The topic of the required essay was “Killing the loyalists of the prior regime” (in order to be loyal to the current king). Roãn Thuần immediately stood up and left.
He immediately reported to his teacher and declared that he was done with taking Imperial Examinations. His wise teacher said, “How do you plan to provide for your aging mother?”